The relationship between mother and child is one of the most resistant, viewed from biological and social terms. It is based on the maternal feeling, plus the social, psychological, educational, cultural, traditional interferences. In the social system of the modern family, both parents are involved in raising and educating the child, but the mother remains the determining factor, who observes and guides the social and biological fulfillment of the human being.
The parental love and the biological parent-child relationship are not factors that explain and determine to a sufficient extent an appropriate behavior and an optimal parent-child interaction. There is a privileged period in the existence of mother-child relationship, when the most lasting bonds are made and they are established immediately after birth. Following this relationship, the parents are suddenly very attracted to the new born. The fostering of this relationship is achieved by a long watching of the child and the contact between the mother’s skin. The mother is very sensitive, to achieve this attachment there are hormonal and psychological motivations. The child responds to the love of the parents showing his attachment to them, which it becomes clear around the age of one year. The quality of the child’s attachment reflects, in fact, the quality of the mother-child relationship. It seems that this link will exert its influence for life.
The maternal feeling is based on the maternal instinct amplified by social and cultural motivations, which makes in the first period of life, the mother-child relationship to be inseparable. The mother is the essential element of the child, which stimulates and induces the child’s social behavior, who is a social being, quality that he proves at the earliest age. The child is a member with full rights in the specific cell of the family, which brings to the child changes in behavior and in adaptability that allow the couples to include the infant in the family structure.
To stimulate the social behavior of the child the dialogue concept must be known; both partners understand that the dialogue involves two people interacting, that both roles are reciprocal and interchangeable (actor-spectator, speaker-listener). The dialogue cannot occur if the baby does not understand the concept of reciprocity, if he does not assume an active role in this interaction. Even during the newborn period, the mother behaves to the child as if he was a true interlocutor and she is addressing him by talking to him. The baby has sensory and perceptual abilities, so he is able to respond to the communication intentions advanced by the adults of the environment. At the age of two months the baby is smiling social. Under the age of two months, the baby has no intentions of communication, but he perceives better and faster the initiatives of the active partner (the mother). After the age of two months, it’s easy to get a friendly smile by any adult who is friendly approaching the infant. After the age of two months, the baby smiles induced, but non-discriminatory. Only after the age of six months he becomes selective, he searches and rewards with a smile only those of the environment. The baby has resources that allow him interpersonal communication behaviors, initially the communication is nonverbal. Verbal communication is installed around the age of one year. Before he can utter the words the child understands their meaning. The mother’s role is profound for a child’s learning of the verbal language (hence the name of ‘mother tongue’).
Finally, the baby is a social being who enters in relationship with his mother since the newborn period. The parent-child interaction is basically a social dialogue, the exchange being initiated by both parents starting from the age of two months.